capital of iraq

The next step was to have each of the nine district councils elect representatives from their membership to serve on the 37 member Baghdad City Council. The Mongols massacred most of the city's inhabitants, including the caliph Al-Musta'sim, and destroyed large sections of the city. The Republican Palace of Baghdad serves as the official residence of the country’s Prime Minister while the Radwaniyah Palace is the residence of the President of Iraq. The city was designed as a circle about 2 km (1.2 mi) in diameter, leading it to be known as the "Round City". Beyond the outer wall was a water-filled moat. For a time, Baghdad had been the largest city in the Middle East. Baghdad and southern Iraq remained under Ottoman rule until 1917, when captured by the British during World War I. On 31 May, after the resulting Anglo-Iraqi War and after Rashid Ali and his government had fled, the Mayor of Baghdad surrendered to British and Commonwealth forces. [8], The name Baghdad is pre-Islamic, and its origin is disputed. Sieges and wars in which Baghdad was involved are listed below: In 1058, Baghdad was captured by the Fatimids under the Turkish general Abu'l-Ḥārith Arslān al-Basasiri, an adherent of the Ismailis along with the 'Uqaylid Quraysh. There are a number of other locations in the wider region whose names are compounds of the word bagh, including Baghlan and Bagram in Afghanistan, Baghshan in Iran,[16] and Baghdati in Georgia, which likely share the same etymological origins. The judicial branch of the Iraqi government comprises of the Supreme Court and other federal courts and legal institutions. Baghdad also has the Green Zone in the Karkh district where the Council of Representatives, the legislative body of the Iraqi government meets. [110], Most Iraqi reconstruction efforts have been devoted to the restoration and repair of badly damaged urban infrastructure. Under the Ottomans, Baghdad continued into a period of decline, partially as a result of the enmity between its rulers and Iranian Safavids, which did not accept the Sunni control of the city. Rainfall has been recorded on fewer than half a dozen occasions at this time of year and has never exceeded 1 millimetre (0.04 in). [42] Although Arabic was used as the international language of science, the scholarship involved not only Arabs, but also Persians, Syriacs,[43] Nestorians, Jews, Arab Christians,[44][45] and people from other ethnic and religious groups native to the region. In 1401, Baghdad was again sacked, by Timur. At the lowest level, the neighbourhood councils, each council represents an average of 75,000 people. We have 2 answers for the crossword clue Capital of Iraq. Regional services, however, are coordinated and carried out by a mayor who oversees the municipalities. As within the city, the district councils then elected representatives from among their members to serve on the 35 member Baghdad Regional Council. In Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate (p. 9). In the central part of the building, there was a green dome that was 39 m high. Mutanabbi Street is located near the old quarter of Baghdad; at Al Rasheed Street. From December through February, Baghdad has maximum temperatures averaging 16 to 19 °C (61 to 66 °F), though highs above 21 °C (70 °F) are not unheard of. From 1851 to 1852 and from 1861 to 1867, Baghdad was governed, under the Ottoman Empire by Mehmed Namık Pasha. There is no single city council that singularly governs Baghdad at a municipal level. In the summer, from June through August, the average maximum temperature is as high as 44 °C (111 °F) and accompanied by sunshine. "Ottoman administration of Iraq, 1890–1908." The city historically had a predominantly Sunni population, but by the early 21st century around 82% of the city's population were Iraqi Shi'ites. Surrounding the palace was an esplanade, a waterside building, in which only the caliph could come riding on horseback. This was a result of theft of some animals for human food, and starvation of caged animals that had no food. Thousands of ancient manuscripts in the National Library were destroyed under Saddam's command. During the 1970s, Baghdad experienced a period of prosperity and growth because of a sharp increase in the price of petroleum, Iraq's main export. [99] Even at night, temperatures in summer are seldom below 24 °C (75 °F). This three tier system of local government connected the people of Baghdad to the central government through their representatives from the neighbourhood, through the district, and up to the city council. Veja exemplos de tradução de capital of Iraq em frases, ouça a pronúncia e aprenda gramática. Baghdad Capital of Iraq. The Sasanian city of Gur in Fars, built 500 years before Baghdad, is nearly identical in its general circular design, radiating avenues, and the government buildings and temples at the centre of the city. [74] After receiving independence in 1932, the capital of the Kingdom of Iraq. The palace governor lived in the latter part of the building and the commander of the guards in the front. [120] This project not only addresses the urgent need for new residential units in Baghdad but also acts as a real symbol of progress in the war torn city, as Baghdad has not seen projects of this scale for decades.[121]. By the 10th century, the city's population was between 1.2 million[58] and 2 million. These official subdivisions of the city served as administrative centres for the delivery of municipal services but until 2003 had no political function. In May 2010, a new residential and commercial project nicknamed Baghdad Gate was announced. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandaeans, Circassians, Sabians and Kawliya. Also, the wall was 30 m high, which included merlons, a solid part of an embattled parapet usually pierced by embrasures. Moreover, entry fees were usually so low that almost everyone could afford them. By Oishimaya Sen Nag on September 26 2018 in World Facts. As the capital of Iraq, Baghdad hosts the offices and residences of the federal government. 1990-10-08 Photo size: 1 - st. letter B. Baghdad's population was estimated at 7.22 million in 2015. This, in addition to housing several key academic institutions, including the House of Wisdom, as well as hosting a multiethnic and multireligious environment, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the "Centre of Learning". During the day, the thermometers can shoot up to 60 ° C in the shade and at night go down to 15 ° C. Moisture is also very low due to the distance separating the city from the Persian Gulf, which helps form the common summer dusty storms shaken from the desert. Baghdad is the capital of Iraq. Arbil, the capital of Iraq Kurdistan region, lies 350 km north of the capital, Baghdad. [55] Many of the One Thousand and One Nights tales, widely known as the Arabian Nights, are set in Baghdad during this period. [17][18], A few authors have suggested older origins for the name, in particular the name Bagdadu or Hudadu that existed in Old Babylonian (spelled with a sign that can represent both bag and hu), and the Babylonian Talmudic name of a place called "Baghdatha". Kilometers and has a total population of 8,765,000 individuals (census, 2016). The wall itself was about 44 m thick at the base and about 12 m thick at the top. The city flourished into an unrivaled intellectual center of science, medicine, philosophy, and education, especially with the Abbasid Translation Movement began under the second caliph Al-Mansur and thrived under the seventh caliph Al-Ma'mun. It has largest city in the country, with 6,431,839 inhabitants and one of the most populated in the Middle East after Cairo and Tehran. [114][115][116][117] In October 2008, it was reported that Al-Zawraa Park was expected to be the site,[118] and a 55 m (180 ft) wheel was installed there in March 2011. It was founded in 762 as the Abbasid dynasty’s capital city. The Seljuks expelled the Buyid dynasty of Shiites that had ruled for some time and took over power and control of Baghdad. ", Stanek, L., Miastoprojekt goes abroad: the transfer of architectural labour from socialist Poland to Iraq (1958–1989), The Journal of Architecture, Volume 17, Issue 3, 2012, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, substantial loss of cultural heritage and historical artifacts, Learn how and when to remove this template message, staged a coup to topple the Kingdom of Iraq, List of neighborhoods and districts in Baghdad, Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center, "Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey", "Cities and urban areas in Iraq with population over 100,000", Vienna unbeatable as world's most liveable city, Baghdad still worst, "BAGHDAD i. The purpose or use of the remaining space in the center is unknown. There is also a private radio station called "Dijlah" (named after the Arabic word for the Tigris River) that was created in 2004 as Iraq's first independent talk radio station. Baghdad is also home to the grave of Abu Hanifa where there is a cell and a mosque above it. [119], Iraq's Tourism Board is also seeking investors to develop a "romantic" island on the River Tigris in Baghdad that was once a popular honeymoon spot for newlywed Iraqis. [127] The live theatre scene received a boost during the 1990s, when UN sanctions limited the import of foreign films. It grew fast and became a modern metropolis. Verifique traduções de "capital of Iraq" para Português. Its location, on the Tigris River about 330 miles (530 km) from the headwaters of the Persian Gulf, is in the heart of ancient Mesopotamia. The Nezamiyeh was founded by the Persian Nizam al-Mulk, who was vizier of two early Seljuk sultans. Four Great Libraries of Medieval Baghdad. In its early years, the city was known as a deliberate reminder of an expression in the Qur'an, when it refers to Paradise. It is the country’s most populated city and the second largest one in Western Asia after the Iranian capital of Tehran. By the 11th century, "Baghdad" became almost the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis. The city's population grew from an estimated 145,000 in 1900 to 580,000 in 1950. In August 1393, Baghdad was occupied by the Central Asian Turkic conqueror Timur ("Tamerlane"),[68] by marching there in only eight days from Shiraz. When Mansur heard the story, he became very joyful, for legend has it, he was called Miklas as a child. Capital of Iraq. At that time, three possible locations had been identified, but no estimates of cost or completion date were given. We last saw the 'Capital of Iraq' clue in The New York Times Mini on Saturday, 07 April 2018. Buy Social Capital of Iraq by online on at best prices. The circular design of the city was a direct reflection of the traditional Persian Sasanian urban design. (1932). The strategic location of Baghdad on the Tigris river’s trading routes and the fact that it had sufficient water resource despite the dry climate, made Baghdad a prosperous city. The community has been subject to kidnappings, death threats, vandalism, and house burnings by Al-Qaeda and other insurgent groups. What does capital of iraq mean? For the next five centuries, Baghdad flourished and became one of the Islamic world’s most renowned cities. flashcards on Quizlet. Hi there! Le Strange, G. (n.d.). [41] Baytul-Hikmah or the "House of Wisdom" was among the most well known academies,[42] and had the largest selection of books in the world by the middle of the 9th century. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 Lows below freezing occur a couple of times per year on average. The Muslim historian al-Tabari reported an ancient prediction by Christian … This wall was surrounded by another wall with a thickness of 50 m. The second wall had towers and rounded merlons, which surrounded the towers. The capital of Iraq is Baghdad. This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 20:20. [113], The Baghdad Eye, a 198 m (650 ft) tall Ferris wheel, was proposed for Baghdad in August 2008. This was a good example of the sort of library built up out of the needs and interests of a literary society. [81], Al-Shaheed Monument, also known as the Martyr's Memorial, is a monument dedicated to the Iraqi soldiers who died in the Iran–Iraq War. However, now it is generally considered by Iraqis to be for all of the martyrs of Iraq, especially those allied with Iran and Syria fighting ISIS, not just of the Iran–Iraq War. Municipally, the governorate is divided into 9 municipalities, which have responsibility for local issues. The Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra is a government funded symphony orchestra in Baghdad. Direct Ottoman rule was reimposed by Ali Rıza Pasha in 1831. [9] Modern scholars generally tend to favor this etymology,[9] which views the word as a compound of bagh () "god" and dād () "given",[13][14] In Old Persian the first element can be traced to boghu and is related to Slavic bog "god",[9][15] A similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt (Mihrdād in New Persian), known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates, meaning "Given by Mithra" (dāt is the more archaic form of dād, related to Latin dat and English donor[9]). The bricks used to make the city were 18 inches (460 mm) on all four sides. Tughril Beg saw himself as the protector of the Abbasid Caliphs.[60]. by Garrels, Anne, and Lawrence, Vint. [38][39] The two designers who were hired by Al-Mansur to plan the city's design were Naubakht, a Zoroastrian who also determined that the date of the foundation of the city would be astrologically auspicious, and Mashallah, a Jew from Khorasan, Iran. For poetry written about Baghdad, see Reuven Snir (ed. Baghdad is the capital of Iraq. It was made of brick and marble. This style of urban planning contrasted with Ancient Greek and Roman urban planning, in which cities are designed as squares or rectangles with streets intersecting each other at right angles. By the 8th century AD, several villages had developed there, including a Persian[10][11] hamlet called Baghdad, the name which would come to be used for the Abbasid metropolis. [76] However, the Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s was a difficult time for the city, as money was diverted by Saddam Hussein to the army and thousands of residents were killed. South African Lawrence Anthony and some of the zoo keepers cared for the animals and fed the carnivores with donkeys they had bought locally. The Iraqi Civil War following ISIS' invasion in 2014 caused hundreds of thousands of Iraqi internally displaced people to flee to the city. Look up the English to German translation of capital of Iraq in the PONS online dictionary. with free interactive flashcards. The city was also home to a large Jewish community and regularly visited by Sikh pilgrims. The city has Shia, Sunni, Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriacs, Armenians and mixed neighborhoods. The dialect of Arabic spoken in Baghdad today differs from that of other large urban centres in Iraq, having features more characteristic of nomadic Arabic dialects (Versteegh, The Arabic Language). The monument was opened in 1983, and was designed by the Iraqi architect Saman Kamal and the Iraqi sculptor and artist Ismail Fatah Al Turk. Among the notable features of Baghdad during this period were its exceptional libraries. The nine districts are subdivided into 89 smaller neighborhoods which may make up sectors of any of the districts above. by Rawlinson, George. [37] After the fall of the Umayyads, the first Muslim dynasty, the victorious Abbasid rulers wanted their own capital from which they could rule. The Tigris splits Baghdad in half, with the eastern half being called "Risafa" and the Western half known as "Karkh". Baghdad has suffered severely from visitations of the plague and cholera,[71] and sometimes two-thirds of its population has been wiped out.[72]. Example sentences with "capital of Iraq", translation memory. The Muslim historian al-Tabari reported an ancient prediction by Christian monks that a lord named Miklas would one day build a spectacular city around the area of Baghdad. There are 105 capital of iraq-related words in total, with the top 5 most semantically related being bagdad, baghdad, irak, iraq and part.You can get the definition(s) of a word in the list below by tapping the question-mark icon next to it. These baths increased public hygiene and served as a way for the religious to perform ablutions as prescribed by Islam. Once all 88 (later increased to 89) neighbourhood councils were in place, each neighbourhood council elected representatives from among their members to serve on one of the city's nine district councils. [citation needed] Notable scholars based in Baghdad during this time include translator Hunayn ibn Ishaq, mathematician al-Khwarizmi, and philosopher Al-Kindi. Marble was also used to make buildings throughout the city, and marble steps led down to the river's edge. It … Thousands of ancient manuscripts in the National Library were destroyed under Saddam's command and because of neglect by the occupying coalition forces. The President of Iraq serves as the head of state. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. In 1920, Baghdad became the capital of the British Mandate of Mesopotamia with several architectural and planning projects commissioned to reinforce this administration. As the capital of Iraq, Baghdad hosts the offices and residences of the federal government. The Mustansiriyah madrasa, which owned an exceedingly rich library, was founded by Al-Mustansir, the second last Abbasid caliph, who died in 1242. Although some of the princes of the previous Umayyad dynasty had begun to gather and translate Greek scientific literature, the Abbasids were the first to foster Greek learning on a large scale. It has recently come to light that the famed Fatimid da'i, al-Mu'ayyad al-Shirazi, had a direct role in supporting al-Basasiri and helped the general to succeed in taking Mawṣil, Wāsit and Kufa. Wahlperiode Drucksache IV/3672, "Baghdad: The City in Verse, translated and edited by Reuven Snir", "Baghdad selected as new member of 'UNESCO Creative Cities Network, "Five women confront a new Iraq |", "Gunmen storm independent radio station in latest attack against media in Iraq", "Occupation and international humanitarian law: Questions and answers – ICRC", Miastoprojekt goes abroad: the transfer of architectural labour from socialist Poland to Iraq (1958–1989), Iraq Image – Baghdad Satellite Observation, National Commission for Investment in Iraq, Description of the original layout of Baghdad, Ethnic and sectarian map of Baghdad – Healingiraq, UAE Investors Keen On Taking Part In Baghdad Renaissance Project, Iraq Inter-Agency Information & Analysis Unit, An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation,, Populated places established in the 8th century, Articles with incomplete citations from July 2020, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages move-protected due to vandalism, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2017, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2019, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles needing additional references from June 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Articles with dead external links from July 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Siege of Baghdad (1625), Ottoman–Safavid Wars, Masjid Al-Kadhimain is a shrine that is located in the, Salihiya Residential area – situated off Al Sinak bridge in central Baghdad, surrounded by Al- Mansur Hotel in the north and Al-Rasheed hotel in the south, Al Khat al Sare'a – Mohammed al Qasim (high speed lane) – runs through Baghdad, north–south, Al Sinaa Street (Industry Street) runs by the University of Technology – centre of the computer trade in Baghdad, "Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-135" by Ibn Battuta. by Cetinsaya, Gokhan. The largest stadium in Baghdad is Al-Shaab Stadium, which was opened in 1966. The word that solves this crossword puzzle is 7 letters long and begins with B The following is a selection (rather than a complete list) of these neighborhoods: The city is located on a vast plain bisected by the Tigris river. [25] Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying: "This is indeed the city that I am to found, where I am to live, and where my descendants will reign afterward". The original design shows a single ring of residential and commercial structures along the inside of the city walls, but the final construction added another ring inside the first. Within a short time, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center of the Muslim world. [citation needed], This article is about the capital of Iraq. Baghdad (/ˈbæɡdæd, bəɡˈdæd/; Arabic: بَغْدَاد‎ [baɣˈdaːd] (listen)) is the capital of Iraq and one of the largest cities in the Arab world, and compared to its large population it has a small area at just 673 square kilometers. 1941-04-22 Photo size: The masterplans of the city (1967, 1973) were delivered by the Polish planning office Miastoprojekt-Kraków, mediated by Polservice. Below is a massive list of capital of iraq words - that is, words related to capital of iraq. [3] The city was largely destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues and multiple successive empires. Persian culture and language dominate the city, but the city is also the meeting point of many ethnic and linguistic groups. [51][52][53] Baghdad was also a significant center of Islamic religious learning, with Al-Jahiz contributing to the formation of Mu'tazili theology, as well as Al-Tabari culminating the scholarship on the Quranic exegesis. [note 1], In contemporary times, the city has often faced severe infrastructural damage, most recently due to the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the subsequent Iraq War that lasted until December 2011. [109] Following the sectarian violence in Iraq between the Sunni and Shia militia groups during the U.S. occupation of Iraq, the city's population became overwhelmingly Shia. Read more about the crossword clue 'Capital of Iraq'. The federal government of Iraq has three branches: the executive, legislative, and the judicial. Baghdad was the largest city in the world for much of the Abbasid era during the Islamic Golden Age, peaking at a population of more than a million. Baghdad has a hot desert climate (Köppen BWh), featuring extremely hot, prolonged, dry summers and mild to cool, slightly wet, short winters. It is the historic center of Baghdadi book-selling, a street filled with bookstores and outdoor book stalls. Guy Le Strange, "Baghdad During the Abbasid Caliphate from Contemporary Arabic and Persian", pg 10. The Republican Palace of Baghdad serves as the official residence of the country’s Prime Minister while the Radwaniyah Palace is the residence of the President of Iraq. In Meri, J.W. It would surpass even Constantinople in prosperity and size.[56]. [57] Unfortunately, this second library was plundered and burned by the Seljuks only seventy years after it was established. The basic framework of the city consists of two large semicircles about 19 km (12 mi) in diameter. Qushla and its surroundings is where the historical features and cultural capitals of Baghdad are concentrated, from the Mutanabbi Street, Abbasid-era palace and bridges, Ottoman-era mosques to the Mustansariyah Madrasa. Many of the victim's bodies were then dragged through the streets of Baghdad. Tehran, capital city of Iran at the foot of the Elburz mountain range. Definition of capital of iraq in the dictionary. 22.2% of the total population of the country resides in Baghdad. We've seen this … [70] Baghdad became a provincial capital controlled by the Mongol Jalayirid (1400–1411), Turkic Kara Koyunlu (1411–1469), Turkic Ak Koyunlu (1469–1508), and the Iranian Safavid (1508–1534) dynasties. [82], Al-Shaheed, (Martyr's Monument), Zawra Park, Baghdad, The Victory Arch (officially known as the Swords of Qādisīyah, Qushla or Qishla is a public square and the historical complex located in Rusafa neighborhood at the riverbank of Tigris. [57] It continued to operate even after the coming of the Mongols in 1258. It was named after the 10th-century classical Iraqi poet Al-Mutanabbi. At this point, Baghdad was ruled by the Ilkhanate, a breakaway state of the Mongol Empire, ruling from Iran. The Metropolis of Baghdad encompasses an area of 204.2 square km. As many as 30 movie theatres were reported to have been converted to live stages, producing a wide range of comedies and dramatic productions. [9][19][20] Some scholars suggested Aramaic derivations.[9]. [21][22][unreliable source?] Some of the important cultural institutions in the city include the National Theater, which was looted during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, but efforts are underway to restore the theatre. In 1040, they destroyed the Ghaznavids, taking over their land and in 1055, Tughril Beg, the leader of the Seljuks, took over Baghdad. [30] July was chosen as the starting time because two astrologers, Naubakht Ahvazi and Mashallah, believed that the city should be built under the sign of the lion, Leo. ***** - capital of iraq. [33] There was a large sanitation department, many fountains and public baths, and unlike contemporary European cities at the time, streets were frequently washed free of debris and trash. After the fall of the Umayyads, the first Muslim dynasty, the victorious Abbasid rulers wanted their own capital from which they could rule. [57] The last two were examples of madrasa or theological college libraries. Includes free vocabulary trainer, verb tables and pronunciation function. Administratively, Baghdad Governorate is divided into districts which are further divided into sub-districts. [32] Within the city there were many parks, gardens, villas, and promenades. This system of 127 separate councils may seem overly cumbersome; however, Baghdad Province is home to approximately seven million people. It accounts for about 40% of the national GDP. [112] In late 2009, a construction plan was proposed to rebuild the heart of Baghdad, but the plan was never realized because corruption was involved in it. On street corners, storytellers engaged crowds with tales such as those later told in Arabian Nights. Many of these libraries were private collections intended only for the use of the owners and their immediate friends, but the libraries of the caliphs and other officials soon took on a public or a semi-public character. [12], Arab authors, realizing the pre-Islamic origins of Baghdad's name, generally looked for its roots in Middle Persian. [29] It took four years to build (764–768). Around 99% of the countr… The city is not only the political capital of Iraq but also the country’s cultural and economic capital. The National Museum of Iraq, containing a collection initiated by British … word on "B". At its peak, it was regarded as one of the greatest cities in the world. Mansur assembled engineers, surveyors, and art constructionists from around the world to come together and draw up plans for the city. [61] Not long before the arrival of the Saljuqs in Baghdad, al-Basasiri petitioned to the Fatimid Imam-Caliph al-Mustansir to support him in conquering Baghdad on the Ismaili Imam's behalf. Baghdad Capital of Iraq. More visible efforts at reconstruction through private development, like architect and urban designer Hisham N. Ashkouri's Baghdad Renaissance Plan and the Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center have also been made. The project would include a six-star hotel, spa, an 18-hole golf course and a country club. It was built under the supervision of the Barmakids. At the beginning of the 21st century, some 1.5 million people migrated to Baghdad, most of them Shiites and a few Sunnis. Joneidi, F. (2007). Rashid Ali installed a pro-German and pro-Italian government to replace the pro-British government of Regent Abdul Ilah. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is approximately 8,765,000, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world, and the second largest city in Western Asia. The name was changed to Al-Mustansiriya University in 1963. "Naked in Baghdad." The importance of the city, however, waned following its capture by Hülegü, a Mongol leader, in 1258. It was built under the supervision of the Barmakids. Today, all that remains of Ctesiphon is the shrine town of Salman Pak, just to the south of Greater Baghdad. [78] This street is well established for bookselling and has often been referred to as the heart and soul of the Baghdad literacy and intellectual community. Before the Mongol Invasion – Encyclopædia Iranica", "Persimmons surviving winter in Bagdati, Georgia", "ما معنى (بغداد)؟ العراق العالم العربي الجغرافيا", When Baghdad was centre of the scientific world, "syriacs during the islamic golden age - Google Search", "Baghdad in Its Golden Age (762–1300) | 25–26 April 2014", "Baghdad Sacked by the Mongols | History Today", Annals of history: Invaders: Destroying Baghdad, New Book Looks at Old-Style Central Asian Despotism, The Fertile Crescent, 1800-1914: a documentary economic history, An economic and social history of the Ottoman Empire, "The architecture of the British Mandate in Iraq: nation-building and state creation", "Iraq crisis: The last Christians of Dora", "Then and Now: A New Chapter for Baghdad Book Market". King Faisal II, former Prime Minister Nuri as-Said, former Regent Prince 'Abd al-Ilah, members of the royal family, and others were brutally killed during the coup. The city covers a total area of 204.2 sq. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state (formerly the British Mandate of Mesopotamia) in 1932, Baghdad gradually regained some of its former prominence as a significant center of Arabic culture, with a population variously estimated at 6 or over 7 million. Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, stands on the banks of the Tigris. [103] On 11 January 2008, light snow fell across Baghdad for the first time in 100 years. [36], The four surrounding walls of Baghdad were named Kufa, Basra, Khurasan, and Syria; named because their gates pointed in the directions of these destinations. Mackenzie, D. (1971). Capital of Iraq The capital of Iraq is Baghdad. Al-Iraq, Irak, Iraq, Republic of Iraq - a republic in the Middle East in western Asia; the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia was in the area now known as Iraq. The Sultan of Baghdad, Abu Said Bahadur Khan, was a Tatar king who embraced Islam.[28]. [79][80] Eventually, Paul Bremer, Director of the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq from 11 May 2003 to 28 June 2004 ordered protection of the zoo and U.S. engineers helped to reopen the facility. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is approximately 8,765,000, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world, and the second largest city in Western Asia. [65] The sack of Baghdad put an end to the Abbasid Caliphate. Learn term:baghdad = capital of iraq. Near the Gate of Syria, a building served as the home for the guards. capital of Iraq - capital and largest city of Iraq; located on the Tigris River; "Baghdad is one of the great cities of the Muslim world". The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. [24] Mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. On 14 July 1958, members of the Iraqi Army, under Abd al-Karim Qasim, staged a coup to topple the Kingdom of Iraq. In recent years, the city has been frequently subjected to insurgent attacks, resulting in a substantial loss of cultural heritage and historical artifacts as well. [90] The square was the site of the statue of Saddam Hussein that was pulled down by U.S. coalition forces in a widely televised event during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The first step in the establishment of the system of local government for Baghdad Province was the election of the Baghdad Provincial Council. It became the seat of the Qajar dynasty in 1786 and has since grown into a major metropolis and the economic center of Iran. The same process was used to provide representative councils for the other communities in Baghdad Province outside of the city itself. [9] They suggested various meanings, the most common of which was "bestowed by God". capital of Iraq translation in English-Italian dictionary. The 41 member Provincial Council took office in February 2004 and served until national elections held in January 2005, when a new Provincial Council was elected. [57] Four great libraries were established in Baghdad during this period. The city spreads out on both the banks of the river. National Museum of Iraq. When the Abbasid caliph, Al-Mansur, founded a completely new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace. Between 1623 and 1638, it returned to Iranian rule before falling back into Ottoman hands. As before, the representatives to the Provincial Council were elected by their peers from the lower councils in numbers proportional to the population of the districts they represent. The eastern and the western halves of the city are called Risafa and Karkh, respectively. The Federation Council and the Council of Representatives compose the legislative branch of the government. [83] It is characterized by the iconic clock tower which was donated by George V. The entire area is submitted to the UNESCO World Heritage Site Tentative list.[84]. Look up the German to English translation of capital of Iraq in the PONS online dictionary. Sultan Ahmad Jalayir fled to Syria, where the Mamluk Sultan Barquq protected him and killed Timur's envoys. Baghdad is the most populated city of Iraq and the 2 nd largest city in Western Asia; the first is Tehran (the capital of Iran). New infrastructure including modern sewerage, water, and highway facilities were built during this period. "A memoir of Major-General Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson." The country is bordered by Turkey, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria to the north, east, southeast, south, southwest, and west, respectively. A concise Pahlavi Dictionary (p. 23, 16). [35] In the center of the city lay the mosque, as well as headquarters for guards. Suraiya Faroqhi, Halil İnalcık, Donald Quataert (1997). Multiple Iraqi parties are in discussions as to whether the arches should remain as historical monuments or be dismantled. In Pahlavi Script and Language (Arsacid and Sassanid) نامه پهلوانی: آموزش خط و زبان پهلوی اشکانی و ساسانی (second ed., p. 109). Iraq , officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق‎ Jumhūriīyah al-ʿIrāq; Kurdish: کۆماری عێراق‎ Komarî Êraq), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. Definition of capital of iraq, with etymology, pronunciation (phonetic and audio), synonyms, antonyms, derived terms and more about the word capital of iraq. As of the end of 2014, only 1,500 Assyrians remained in Dora.[77]. The Mustansiriya Madrasah was established in 1227 by the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustansir. [64] Many quarters were ruined by fire, siege, or looting. Solve word puzzles to develop logical and creative thinking, to … ed. Al-Qushla: Iraq's oasis of free expression. 22 October 2020 The New York Times Mini. [111] A plan was proposed by a Government agency to rebuild a tourist island in 2008. [31] Leo is associated with fire and symbolises productivity, pride, and expansion. متن‌های پهلوی. It was only after 1920 when the city became the capital of Iraq that it regained its lost prominence. The INSO plays primarily classical European music, as well as original compositions based on Iraqi and Arab instruments and music. According to the traveler Ibn Battuta, Baghdad was one of the largest cities, not including the damage it has received. [79], Grand Festivities Square is the main square where public celebrations are held and is also the home to three important monuments commemorating Iraqi's fallen soldiers and victories in war; namely Al-Shaheed Monument, the Victory Arch and the Unknown Soldier's Monument. Beginning in April 2003, the U.S. controlled Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) began the process of creating new functions for these. [34] In fact, by the time of Harun al-Rashid, Baghdad had a few thousand hammams. Many of the Abbasid caliphs were patrons of learning and enjoyed collecting both ancient and contemporary literature. [100][101] The humidity is typically under 50% in summer due to Baghdad's distance from the marshy southern Iraq and the coasts of Persian Gulf, and dust storms from the deserts to the west are a normal occurrence during the summer. Necessity to organize the Kurdish home and British war planes rained down outside Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, lighting up the night sky. Choose from 132 different sets of term:baghdad = capital of iraq. [26], The city's growth was helped by its excellent location, based on at least two factors: it had control over strategic and trading routes along the Tigris, and it had an abundance of water in a dry climate. Baghdad's record highest temperature of 51.8 °C (125.2 °F) was reached on 28 July 2020. ), Baghdad: The City in Verse (Harvard, 2013)[125] Baghdad joined the UNESCO Creative Cities Network as a City of Literature in December 2015.[126]. These are mainly highly educated Iraqis who were from Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, and Basra city in the south of Iraq. Firdos Square is a public open space in Baghdad and the location of two of the best-known hotels, the Palestine Hotel and the Sheraton Ishtar, which are both also the tallest buildings in Baghdad. Sunni Muslims make up 17% of Iraq's population and they are still a majority in west and north Iraq. They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, and on 30 July 762 the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city. The land on which the city is built is almost entirely flat and low-lying, being of alluvial origin due to the periodic large floods which have occurred on the river. [40], Within a generation of its founding, Baghdad became a hub of learning and commerce. During her last week in Bagdad, the capital of Iraq, restrictions were placed on journalists making it dangerous to move around. In 1534, Baghdad was captured by the Ottoman Turks. The city of Baghdad soon became so large that it had to be divided into three judicial districts: Madinat al-Mansur (the Round City), al-Sharqiyya (Karkh) and Askar al-Mahdi (on the West Bank).[27]. Several estimates suggest that the city contained over a million inhabitants at its peak. Pregledaj milijunima riječi i fraza na svim jezicima. Mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. During this time, in Baghdad, Christians and Shia were tolerated, while Sunnis were treated as enemies. capital of iraq pronunciation - How to properly say capital of iraq. Baghdad accounts for 22.2 per cent of Iraq's population and 40 per cent of the country's gross domestic product (PPP). Also in 2003, the minor riot in the city (which took place on 21 July) caused some disturbance in the population. Another was established by Sabur ibn Ardashir in 991 or 993 for the literary men and scholars who frequented his academy. The city has also had a strong tradition of horse racing ever since World War I, known to Baghdadis simply as 'Races'. Best Answer for Capital Of Iraq Crossword Clue. Water exists on both the north and south ends of the city, allowing all households to have a plentiful supply, which was very uncommon during this time. [104] Snowfall was again reported on 11 February 2020, with accumulations across the city.[105]. [102], Annual rainfall, almost entirely confined to the period from November through March, averages approximately 150 mm (5.91 in), but has been as high as 338 mm (13.31 in) and as low as 37 mm (1.46 in). Meaning of capital of iraq. The city of Baghdad is the capital of Iraq. [75] On 1 April 1941, members of the "Golden Square" and Rashid Ali staged a coup in Baghdad. CAPITAL OF IRAQ 'CAPITAL OF IRAQ' is a 13 letter phrase starting with C and ending with Q Crossword clues for 'CAPITAL OF IRAQ' Clue Answer; Capital of Iraq (7) BAGHDAD: Iraqi capital (7) Synonyms, crossword answers and other related words for CAPITAL OF IRAQ [baghdad] Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. They ruled as Sultans in the name of the Abbasid caliphs (they saw themselves as being part of the Abbasid regime). It connects the center to the southern neighborhood of Dora. Within eight days following the 2003 invasion, however, only 35 of the 650 animals in the facility survived. Points of interest include the National Museum of Iraq whose collection of artifacts was looted during the 2003 invasion, and the iconic Hands of Victory arches. [59] Baghdad's early meteoric growth eventually slowed due to troubles within the Caliphate, including relocations of the capital to Samarra (during 808–819 and 836–892), the loss of the western and easternmost provinces, and periods of political domination by the Iranian Buwayhids (945–1055) and Seljuk Turks (1055–1135). In addition, the go-ahead has been given to build numerous architecturally unique skyscrapers along the Tigris that would develop the city's financial centre in Kadhehemiah. During the rule of the Ottoman Empire in the later centuries, Baghdad served only as a provincial capital. As of 2016, the population of the city was 8,765,000 people. Information and translations of capital of iraq in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. "by Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. Over 100,000 construction workers came to survey the plans; many were distributed salaries to start the building of the city. As of 2018[update], Baghdad was listed as one of the least hospitable places to live, ranked by Mercer as the world's worst major city for quality of life. The number of neighbourhood representatives on a district council is based upon the neighbourhood's population. Baghdad, also spelled Bagdad, Arabic Baghdād, formerly Madīnat al-Salām (Arabic: “City of Peace”), city, capital of Iraq and capital of Baghdad governorate, central Iraq. In addition, the palace was near other mansions and officer's residences. Baghdad is the capital city of Iraq. Baghdad. The University of Baghdad is the largest university in Iraq and the second largest in the Arab world. The governorate council is responsible for the governorate-wide policy. "Yakut: Baghdad under the Abbasids, c. 1000CE". Baghdad eclipsed Ctesiphon, the capital of the Sassanians, which was located some 30 km (19 mi) to the southeast. Famous Arab poets and singers such as Nizar Qabbani, Umm Kulthum, Fairuz, Salah Al-Hamdani, Ilham al-Madfai and others have performed for the city. [128] Institutions offering cultural education in Baghdad include The Music and Ballet School of Baghdad and the Institute of Fine Arts Baghdad. [114], In October 2008, the Baghdad Metro resumed service. [130], Baghdad is home to some of the most successful football (soccer) teams in Iraq, the biggest being Al-Shorta (Police), Al-Quwa Al-Jawiya (Airforce club), Al-Zawra'a, and Talaba (Students). The nine District Advisory Councils (DAC) are as follows:[91]. [62] Despite his Shi'i inclinations, Al-Basasiri received support from Sunnis and Shi'is alike, for whom opposition to the Saljuq power was a common factor. The city of Baghdad is one of the world’s oldest cities. Each neighbourhood process ultimately ended with a final meeting where candidates for the new neighbourhood councils identified themselves and asked their neighbours to vote for them. [129], Priceless collection of artifacts in the National Museum of Iraq was looted by the Iraqi citizens during the 2003 US-led invasion. capital and largest city of Iraq; located on the Tigris River; "Baghdad is one of the great cities of the Muslim world" stemming. Radio Dijlah offices, in the Jamia neighborhood of Baghdad, have been attacked on several occasions. noun capital and largest city of Iraq; located on the Tigris River Baghdad is one of the great cities of the Muslim world • Syn: ↑Baghdad, ↑Bagdad • Instance Hypernyms: ↑national capital • Part Holonyms: ↑Iraq, ↑ They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, and on 30 July 762[23] the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city. [57] This would prove to be the last great library built by the caliphs of Baghdad. it Il presidente della FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Echecs), Kirsan Iliumzhinov, ha deciso di assegnare l'organizzazione dell'incontro valido per il campionato mondiale di scacchi-FIDE a Bagdad, capitale dell'Iraq, sede del regime di Saddam Hussein.

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