how do ash trees reproduce

Both male and female flowers are purple and appear before the leaves in spring, growing in spiked clusters at the tips of twigs. Aspen reproduces both by seeds and by root sprouts, though sprouting is the most common and successful form of reproduction. A good seed crop is produced about every third year. Larvae of the emerald ash borer, an introduced beetle, have killed millions of ash trees in North America by tunneling beneath their bark. An emerald ash borer larva is removed from an ash tree in Saugerties, N.Y. In the insect’s home range in Asia, researchers have found three species of tiny wasps that lay eggs inside ash borer larvae, and one wasp the size of a grain of sand that parasitizes borer eggs. In one, she’s testing whether ash seedlings grown in containers under artificial light and treated with hormones produce seeds in less than the normal 3 to 4 years. So, to restore ash, those newcomers would first need to be removed—a potentially expensive, labor-intensive process, McCullough says. But the beetle, an agile flier adept at sniffing out ash trees, slipped through with ease; it has now reached 35 states and Washington, D.C. (see map, below). Burrowing and feeding larvae eventually girdle trees, killing them. But in a narrow strip of grass behind a homely, 1960s-era building, forest geneticist Jennifer Koch was overseeing a hive of activity. (Breeders in the United Kingdom are seeking genetic resistance to a fungus attacking ash trees there.) Home Into the Forest Trees, Plants & Animals Trees Ash. Ash seedlings that were too small to be infested during the first “wave” of eme… Ash tree grows in cool and warm climate, on the moist, well drained soil, in areas that provide enough direct sunlight. What can I do about emerald ash borer? In spring, oak trees grow male flowers called staminate and female equivalents known as pistillate on the same tree. Gabriel Popkin is a journalist based in Mount Rainier, Maryland. Step 1 - Collect Seeds from Water Lilies. Oaks are classified as being monoecious, which means they produce both male and female flowers. Then he deftly shaved the thin bark off the trunk, to expose evidence of feeding: “galleries,” or winding tunnels bored by the larvae that resemble a kindergartner’s marker squiggles. And if such compounds reliably predict longer survival in the forest, they could pave the way to rapid testing of wild trees for borer resistance, potentially speeding breeding efforts, Koch says. Some experts predicted the borer could cause the extinction of ash species in North America and began to organize a response. Sitting under his tent, he snapped green branches off a sapling and saved them for future grafting onto other trees, in case the sapling proved resistant. Emergence of Emerald Ash Borer from Ash tree. “Genetic variation,” she says, “is a very powerful survival mechanism.”, Koch’s quest has its origins in a humble place: parking lots around Detroit. Trees growing in forests, by contrast, have had millions of years to mutate and mix genes into countless combinations. The EAB is a green jewel-colored beetle that feeds on ash tree species. Bark of mature trees is gray and furrowed, often appearing in a diamond pattern. Individuals soar to 35 meters, and species anchor critical ecosystems: black ash in soggy northern wetlands, green ash along Midwestern streams, blue ash in open savannas of Kentucky, white ash in dense mountain forests of Appalachia, and a half-dozen species in the Southwest. Most of these compounds probably provide no defense against ash borers. Leaves and Bark of Ash Trees “We tend to try to work towards shorter term solutions,” he says. In 2015, Koch’s team published its first major paper on ash, reporting that lingering green ash trees killed significantly more larvae than control trees. In recent years, researchers have released wasps in forests in 30 states where the emerald ash borer is present. Dead larvae excite Koch and her team the most. an adult. In 2003, Koch attended an early meeting on the forest pest du jour: the emerald ash borer. One of the most common native tree species in America, the ash tree is beloved by landscapers and homeowners. Signs & Symptoms of EAB. Researchers at the University of Rhode Island and North Carolina State University, for example, have reared lingering hemlock trees that may resist the adelgid; Koch hopes to start breeding the best performers. Since a devastating fungal blight popped up in the Bronx Zoo in 1904 and went on to kill at least 3 billion chestnut trees, North American forests have been swept by one plague after another, including a fungus that kills elms and an aphidlike insect that kills hemlocks. This requires an ash tree root and a cutting or sucker. The ash tree is a strong, medium to very large tree, depending on type, and a relative of the olive tree. And some wonder whether, even if a better ash emerges, the trees will be able to muscle their way back into profoundly reshaped ecosystems. Some of Koch’s trees were supposed to be growing there by now, but the shipment was delayed by the pandemic and is now planned for spring. If you are interested in collecting seeds, you must wait until these pods mature. for the larvae to develop. made noticing two year development. Already, formerly ash-dominated sites now host other trees, grasses, or invasive plants. Effective parasitoids could complement her breeding efforts, she says, by lowering ash borer numbers enough to give partially resistant trees better odds of surviving to reproductive age. Zone 2: Deciduous Trees. There's a remarkable range of pollination strategies, with each tree developing adaptations that help it … “Nature doesn’t just sit there and wait for you to come along and plant a tree.”. “They are trying to do some research on those trees to find out what it is that keeps them safe from the emerald ash borer.” He said it might be possible to collect seeds or reproduce those trees that the emerald ash borer will not attack. That’s what happens in Asia, Koch notes, where genes and ash borer enemies conspire to protect trees. Image. upon which the Larvae will burrow one cm into the tree to wait out Cessation of the feeding will occur in October or November Ash facts. Follow-up studies have shown the wasps can find beetles, parasitize them, and reproduce; in some trees, up to 80% of ash borer larvae have … Image. Make a Graft. A severe infestation will lead to the loss of the ash. The first step, Koch realized, was to survey that genetic diversity before the borer eliminated it. David Carey, a technician on Koch’s team, was performing that task in August. The efforts have borne some fruit. As ash trees in forests die, gaps form in the forest canopy, allowing light to reach understory vegetation. Ash breeding may be just the beginning. Starting in 2005, ecologist Kathleen Knight of the U.S. Forest Service and Koch set up 150 study plots in infested forests in Ohio, and then repeatedly revisited them, tracing how ash trees in the plots fared. Below the photos is information on different types of ash trees, including facts about the ash tree species, planting information, and close up colorful ash tree images.. Ovipositing, the “laying” of eggs, by females, in crevices in the ash tree bark and branches, typically is completed seven to nine Seedless Ash trees are common. McCullough and others are more bullish on saving existing trees through biological control: identifying, rearing, and releasing insects or other species that kill unwanted pests. The emerald ash borer, a tough little beetle, is working on decimating ash trees in the United States. Gregarious and impatient with dogmatic thinking, Koch is more motivated by solving real-world problems than by doing basic research on model organisms. But Koch persisted. Parasitoids have often proved to be more successful biocontrol agents than predators, like those that might tame the woolly adelgid, because parasitoids are more likely to target a single species, causing less collateral damage. “We have contests for who can successfully pull out the smallest larvae and the biggest larvae,” Koch says. Koch believes her approach could save other North American trees facing introduced threats. “Breeding for resistance is a long-term research effort.”. It was “kind of boring” at first, Knight says, because almost all the ash trees simply died. EABs lay eggs in bark crevices, specifically on ash trees, and larvae feed underneath the bark of ash trees. Effects of emerald ash borer may be similar to those of chestnut blight or Dutch elm disease. Although most Life cycles will take a year, observations have been “We just don’t have native insects that do that kind of stuff.”. the All ash trees have leaves that are made up of individual “leaflets”. in bears. Another seeks to identify the specific compounds that resistant ash trees use to fight the borer. But she is also ramping up work on other ash species; none is safe from the borer. Koch, however, feels certain that genes lurking among the billions of ash trees growing across the continent can save the species. By Gabriel PopkinNov. Ash trees are found mainly in the eastern and southeastern areas of the U.S. Larvae of the emerald ash borer chew into trees, where they overwinter beneath the bark before pupating in the spring. This large and graceful deciduous tree occurs throughout Scotland, but is now at risk due to the spread of an imported fungal disease. Shamel Ash 'Evergreen Ash' Fraxinus udhei. • What is Emerald Ash Borer? It is important for emerald ash borer treatment to happen prior to hatching season to ensure the new larvae do not successfully chew their way through the wood of the tree. Dam threatening world’s rarest great ape faces delays, Elephants can lose two bathtubs full of water in a single day when it gets hot, Public needs to prep for vaccine side effects, Potential signs of life on Venus are fading fast, Study homes in on ‘exceptional responders’ to cancer drugs, Laser fusion reactor approaches ‘burning plasma’ milestone, American Association for the Advancement of Science. But a handful show up disproportionately in trees that kill the most borer larvae, Stanley has found. Ash is dioecious, meaning that male and female flowers typically grow on different trees, although a single tree can also have male and female flowers on different branches. Reproduction occurs within ten days upon emerging from the tree in not exclusive as males may interact with several females. Some may code for chemicals that kill feeding larvae or make wood less digestible; others may make leaves less detectable or palatable to adults. Trees reproduce asexually, through cultivation, and sexually, through the exchange of pollen between male and female reproductive systems. from 30-90+ eggs. Experiments have reported females have the ability to lay anywhere There are 45 to 65 species of ash trees that can be found in the northern parts of Europe, Asia and North America. But traits like insect resistance are typically controlled by many genes, not one—and in the case of ash trees, researchers don’t know which genes are important. That, she says, convinced many who doubted that trees never exposed to an introduced insect could still resist it. The most visible sign of infestation is crown dieback. Ash tree is deciduous tree that belongs to the family Oleaceae. Eight weeks later, they dissect the trees and trace the fate of each hatched borer. “It’s as if they don’t even know something is boring into their vascular system and killing them,” Romero-Severson says. A single tree can produce both male and female flowers, relying on adaptations such as different blooming times to prevent self-pollination. The top-performing offspring of two lingering ash trees kill up to four times as many larvae as their parents, Koch and colleagues have found. Ash Tree Guide: How to Grow This American Beauty. “It’s not like if we have a resistant ash tree, everything is going to be hunky dory,” says Deborah McCullough, a forest entomologist at Michigan State University. An ash twig in winter. 12, 2020 , 10:32 AM. That’s where, nearly 2 decades ago, experts gathered to examine ash trees that had suddenly died. This photo shows one leaf with seven leaflets. Finally when By Marion Sipe. Reproduction and Early Growth Flowering and Fruiting- White ash is dioecious; flowers appear with or just before the leaves in April and May. “Sometimes there’s an overexuberance towards the efficacy of biocontrol,” says Koch, who feels she has had to meet a higher bar to get her breeding research funded. It has destroyed tens of millions of true ash species in over 25 states, including Nebraska. Image. Since the Asian beetle was first discovered in Michigan in 2002, it has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees across half the continent and caused tens of billions of dollars of damage. Follow-up studies have shown the wasps can find beetles, parasitize them, and reproduce; in some trees, up to 80% of ash borer larvae have wasps living inside them. These larvae take up to two years to turn into adults. The larvae kill ash trees by burrowing into them to feed on bark and, fatally, the thin, pipelike tissues that transport water and nutrients. Ash trees (Fraxinus spp. Yes, ash trees are commonly found with oak trees in some forests. These deciduous trees flourish in gardening zone two. Now, she’s planning to use those top performers to breed an even more resistant generation. There are 2 types of trees: gymnosperms (any woody plant that doesn't have a flower) and angiosperms (any flowering plant). ), which can grow in USDA zones 2-9, are opposite-leaved hardwoods native to North America, Europe and Asia. The insect feeds off a tree's cambium, effectively cutting off its circulation and eventually killing the tree. For example, biocontrol researchers have spent more than 3 decades seeking and rearing predators to curb the hemlock woolly adelgid, which kills eastern and Carolina hemlock trees; they’ve made progress but are still far from declaring victory. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is a major threat to the ash species (Fraxinus spp.) Pour seeding mix into the pot to within 3/4 inch of the rim. Some Ash produce conspicuous hard, brown “flower galls” on their twigs. Adult males have an The Shamel Ash, also known as the 'Evergreen Ash', is a favorite waterwise, fast-growing shade tree perfect for just about any landscape in Southern California and low-elevation deserts. Biocontrol researchers say the ash borer might be easier to defeat. But she’s starting to recruit help by building a network of government and nonprofit organizations to grow and plant resistant ash trees. Whereas breeding could pay off eventually, biocontrol may already be protecting regrowing ash trees in some places, says Scott Pfister, director of APHIS’s pest management division. © 2020 American Association for the Advancement of Science. DELAWARE, OHIO—On a weekday morning in August, just one pickup truck sat in the sprawling visitors’ parking lot here at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Forestry Sciences Laboratory. the cold winter months; a process extremely similar to hibernation All Rights Reserved. “Everyone kind of looked at me like I was nuts,” she recalls. AAAS is a partner of HINARI, AGORA, OARE, CHORUS, CLOCKSS, CrossRef and COUNTER. Flowering ash, Fraxinus ornus, bears bisexual flowers, each containing male and female reproductive organs. She hopes restoration plantings could start in about 10 years. Despite the progress she’s made, Koch says it sometimes “feels like the weight of the world is on us.” Hers remains the sole U.S.-based effort to revive ash trees through breeding. Starting in 2008, Knight, Koch, and others cut branches from the biggest and healthiest of those trees, which they dubbed “lingering ash,” and grafted them onto root stock of healthy trees. Those finds signal trees that, through genetic luck, can kill emerald ash borers, rather than the other way around. Examples of trees that produce samaras with a wing to just one side of the seed are maple and ash. Aspen produces small flowers, on catkins that are 1-2 inches long. No tree has come back—but Koch hopes her approach can usher in an unprecedented era of tree revival. To keep your ash trees healthy and thriving, contact a licensed tree care company treat your ash trees to prevent wood boring insects such as emerald ash borer. But the insect’s arrival in North America set off alarms. temperatures begin to warm (around April) the larvae will mature into Koch focuses mostly on the green ash, one of at least 16 native ash species in North America. “It was pretty obvious right away this was not something anybody had ever seen before,” recalls McCullough, who cut down some of those trees for study. “People get pretty excited and competitive about it. But over time, she found that about one in 1000 green and white ash trees—the most common species in Ohio—produced flushes of new leaves even after borers had killed neighboring trees. Over 5 weeks, the researchers would take apart some 400 saplings, peeling wood back layer by layer in search of the maggotlike larvae of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), the most devastating insect ever to strike a North American tree. is roughly one year but may take as long as two years depending on “There’s a lot of data that suggest it’s promising,” says Poland, who leads the Forest Service’s research effort. But biological control faces its own limitation: There have to be enough borers in an area to sustain wasp populations. Emerald ash borer (EAB) is a beetle native to Asia that was introduced to Detroit, MI in 2002. “Plants are just chemical geniuses,” Stanley says. Copyright Template Design © 2007 Travel Portal. Some Ash trees will produce small canoe paddle-shaped seeds. Ash is a key genus of temperate hardwood tree. The concept has a long history of success in managed landscapes, such as farm fields and orchards. A team of seven technicians, researchers, and students—each masked and under their own blue pop-up tent—were systematically dissecting 3-meter-tall ash trees in a strange sort of arboreal disassembly line. If those trees consistently kill 80% to 90% of larvae that attack them in field trials, Koch says they can begin restoration efforts. Male and Female Flowers. Koch, who had arrived at the USDA lab in the 1990s as a graduate student and stayed on as a staff scientist, was intrigued. Water lilies disperse their seeds in pods. In graduate school, she studied the genetics of air pollution resistance in poplar trees but then moved on to trying to breed resistance to a century-old debilitating bark disease of beech trees caused by a fungus-insect combination. Since the emerald ash borer (EAB) was discovered in Michigan in 2002, it has spread widely into areas where ash trees grow. One of the few legumes to produce a samara is the tipu tree of South America. These flowers are produced in the early spring before the leaves grow on the trees. Mating is not exclusive as males may interact with several females. By the time borers have reached such densities, they will have likely already killed almost all large ash trees, experts say. Such traditional breeding is a blunter tool than more fashionable genetic engineering techniques that can precisely transfer or alter single genes. Oak tree reproduction takes place between spring and autumn. Forest geneticist Jennifer Koch hopes her ash breeding strategy could save other threatened trees. After “Back then the big headline was: ‘Kiss your ash goodbye.’ People just didn’t believe that there could be resistance within native species.”. Researchers place 12 eggs on each stem of hundreds of ash saplings grown from cuttings. the ash tree bark and branches, typically is completed seven to nine Resilient and stress-tolerant, ash was also heavily planted in cities. There are over 60 ash tree species— the white ash being the largest of the family. in hardwood forests. Many researchers believe identifying and releasing natural enemies of the ash borer, an approach called biological control, could help ash sooner. Several generations of breeding and selection will allow these genes to stack up over time, providing ever stronger defense, Koch hopes. But even lingering trees didn’t kill enough larvae to save themselves, the researchers found; they still died, just more slowly. Then place a plastic baggie over the seed pod and loosely secure it to the stem with a twist tie. The time between the first noticeable enlargement of the male flower buds until shedding is 2 to 3 weeks. It is not particular about the type of soil or its pH level; this tree can grow in clay, loam or sandy soils. Emerald ash borer, if left untreated, will reproduce and spread from ash tree to ash tree. Most species bear male and female flowers on separate trees. Mating is Carey moved down a few centimeters along the tree trunk and started a new dissection. In 2002, this invasive buprestid was identified as the killer of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) Find out more about growing ash trees from HGTV garden experts. Reproduction occurs within ten days upon emerging from the tree in early spring. Robert Stanley, a graduate student in Romero-Severson’s group, grinds up samples from dissected saplings and analyzes the chemicals in the wood. This is believed to be the result of eggs being laid late in So in 2010, Koch started to crossbreed her most resistant trees—the same basic technique used by plant breeders for 10,000 years to produce bigger grains, sweeter fruit, and countless other desired traits. But its record in natural forests is less sterling. Ovipositing, the “laying” of eggs, by females, in crevices in “Our best tree so far was 11 out of 11” larvae killed, Koch says; the 12th egg failed to hatch. All rights Reserved. The researchers then developed a way to test for resistance under controlled conditions. Growing Green Ash. How to Propagate Ash Trees From Seed. Those with samaras that produce the wing to both sides of the seed include tulip tree, elm, and birch. Such a timeline would be fast by tree-breeding standards, but some fear it may be too slow to save the ash. Biocontrol is now the “cornerstone” of antiborer efforts led by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), USDA’s primary agency for fighting plant pests. Cut the root so that a piece of … You have to do something, because it is very tedious—and [the larvae] are really gross.”. This foreigner would be rather harmless had it not be for its means for reproduction. “We’re kind of pushing Mother Nature along by putting these trees together,” Koch says. Green ash grows best in deep, moist, nutrient-rich soil. A native to Mexico, this sun-loving, fast-growing tree can grow up to 40-feet tall and wide in just 20 years. And ultimately, she hopes to expand her approach to other trees brought low by a foreign pest, in a bid to reverse the biological hollowing out of forests set in motion by the transcontinental swapping of species. “My goal,” Koch says, “is that when I retire, I leave behind all the tools” that others might need to meet new threats to native trees. Forests, windbreaks, and urban trees—some 44 million Nebraska ash trees—will be lost in the coming years. two weeks the eggs will hatch where the larvae will begin to feed on The ash tree is a handsome, native, deciduous tree. This valuable and useful information that can help you to learn more about the ash and help you identify the ash tree.. Soon, Carey found a little yellow head poking out, the larva’s body still encased in the tree. The collaboration—which includes the conservation organization American Forests; the Holden Arboretum in Kirtland, Ohio; and Fender Musical Instruments, which has long used ash wood for guitars—has plans to establish an ash tree nursery in Detroit. During the discussion, she wondered aloud whether some trees might harbor natural resistance to the beetle. This is no trivial task; ash, like other trees, is a sophisticated chemical factory, producing hundreds of compounds with structures and functions unknown to science. Starting in late spring, Koch’s team receives coffee filters containing thousands of ash borer eggs reared by Forest Service entomologist Therese Poland in Lansing, Michigan. Still, she hopes the wasps succeed. The ultimate goal, she says, is “to mimic what happens in nature.”. Michigan and USDA imposed quarantines on moving ash trees in a bid to contain the pest. Fraxinus americana, the white ash or American ash, is a species of ash tree native to eastern and central North America.It is found in mesophytic hardwood forests from Nova Scotia west to Minnesota, south to northern Florida, and southwest to eastern Texas.Isolated populations have also been found in western Texas, Wyoming, and Colorado, and the species is reportedly naturalized in Hawaii. The tree’s failure to kill this larva was a strike against its future in the breeding program. Not all researchers share such faith in tree breeding. days after conception. average lifespan of 13 days while females typically live 21 days. Ash trees have leaves that are opposite each other on the stem, a helpful way to identify an ash! From conception to death the life span of Agrillus Planipennis Image. Through the end of 2019, APHIS had invested $13.2 million in emerald ash borer biocontrol research, versus $2.4 million in breeding resistant trees. In essence, one of Koch’s colleagues joked, they created “TreeHarmony”—a matchmaking service for durable trees. Water the soil well and allow the tray to drain for two hours. phloem of the tree. “We try to look for the best of the best,” Knight says. There are monoecious types of ash tree which do reproduce asexualy but there are some that are either male or female... hope it helped White ash trees (Fraxinus americana) are native to the eastern United States and Canada, ranging naturally from Nova Scotia to Minnesota, Texas, and Florida.They are big, beautiful, branching shade trees that turn glorious shades of red to deep purple in the fall. Ash trees have an opposite branching structure, with multiple leaflets. She’d also like to breed beech trees that can beat the bark disease and eventually add butternut, which is threatened by a fungus, as well as elm and chestnut trees. early spring. emergence occurs anytime from May to August. Ash Tree Facts. Treatments are needed every year to protect trees from emerald ash borer. They reproduce inside the bark. Many Midwestern city streets became denuded dystopias of dead trees. Keep reading to learn white ash tree facts and how to grow a white ash tree. Ash mythology and folklore. Adult The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), also known by the acronym EAB, is a green buprestid or jewel beetle native to north-eastern Asia that feeds on ash species.Females lay eggs in bark crevices on ash trees, and larvae feed underneath the bark of ash trees to emerge as adults in one to two years. Scientists now estimate that EAB was introduced during the early 1990’s from infested solid-wood packing materials such as pallets and crated use… the season (late summer/early fall), not allowing sufficient time The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a wood-boring beetle indigenous to countries in northeastern Asia. North American trees, separated from their Asian cousins by an ocean and millions of years of evolution, had never been exposed to the borer, and lacked chemicals to detect or defeat it. a pupae, which will remain in the tree until it is ready to exit as So she has embarked on several efforts to speed up the process. In cities, where the plague first emerged, trees tend to lack diversity, she reasoned; urban foresters tend to plant genetically similar strains widely, making street trees uniquely vulnerable to invasive pests. He pulled the larva out with tweezers, placed it in a plastic tray with a growing pile of its compatriots, and cataloged its size and location. “If we don’t intervene, there’s a good chance that green ash will go extinct,” she says. Emerald ash borers feed on the leaves and reproduce inside the tree. ( Kovacs, et al., 2010 ; Wang, et al., 2010 ) These animals are found in the following types of habitat “We’re hoping for some way we can quickly test a tree and say, ‘OK, that one’s a dog.’”. Prepupa stage from where it will develop, over winter, into the flying metallic beetle we're familiar with. Adult borers, scientists soon learned, feed on ash leaves and lay eggs on ash bark. “We don’t think we have to lose any North American tree species to invasive pests and disease,” says plant geneticist Jeanne Romero-Severson of the University of Notre Dame, one of Koch’s collaborators. The Blue Ash and Black Ash trees are considered rare. Support our work. In the meantime, Koch worries her funders—primarily USDA—will lose patience with her breeding efforts. And she knows new diseases and insects will arrive. conditions. Eventually Eduard Jendek, an entomologist in Bratislava, Slovakia, identified the culprit as the emerald ash borer, which had lived mostly unnoticed in its east Asian homeland. in southeastern Michigan and nearby Windsor, Ontario. They then transform into iridescent green beetles about the size of a grain of rice that fly off to attack other trees. Native trees may respond and fill in the gaps. Such rare resistant trees could ultimately help Koch achieve her ambitious goal: using time-tested plant-breeding techniques to create ash varieties that can fend off the borer and reclaim their historic place in North American forests. A decadeslong decline in research funding had been slowly quieting the place—and then came the pandemic. Emerald Ash Borer utilizes the flowering plants of the Fraxinus genus, or ash trees, for laying their larvae which inevitably lead to the trees' demise.

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